On late 18th and 19th century of 1790s until 1890s, that era was a revolution of France. Jacques-Louis David was French painter and painted lots of painting, which related with revolution of France. He had tumor; he also has the swollen cheek and could not talk but only mumbled most of the time. He painted Oath of Horatii, Napoleon at Saint-Bernard Pass, The Death of Marat and so on. The Death of Marat is a painting what was guarded and Marat was one who was a French revolute and died in bath. Yet, there was a woman, who wanted to kill Marat, she was Charlotte Corday. In The Death of Marat painting, there were two letters on the table was from Corday, who needed help from Marat. He created images that are propagandistic, for example if you look at the Death of Marat, what we see is that it is a humble person and we feel pity for him. But in reality, he was a ruthless killer. He was a killing terror machine that happened after the French revolution. Oath of Horatii, it is a boys’ bonding picture, a tight-packed display of muscle veins and steel. Formerly, The Palace of Louvre usedto be opened for free and showed many paintings of David.
David painted himself when he was in prison. He used the excuse that he was just a painter and released. That time, he painted a portrait, which was Napoleon at Saint-Bernard Pass painting, who became an Emperor of France. On December 1825, David died and his paintings were put on public display, except the Death of Marat, which was guarded. He was a painter, who used neoclassic style.
Another story about Revolution of France is Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI. At 1775, Louis XVI came to throne and was inherited the Versailles from his father, Louis XV. Marie Antoinette was a devotee and also Louis XVI’s wife. She built a toy farm at Versailles and went off milking cows in the royal dairy. Unfortunately, Marie was guillotined and died on October 16th 1793.
The aesthetic are divided into three groups, which are Neoclassic, Romanticism and Realism. The Neoclassic or New Classic is the Greeks and the Romans Cultures, but Renaissance is a rebirth to the classic cultures of the Greeks and the Romans. So, Neoclassic is a rebirth too like Renaissance and more rational. Why is it always REBIRTH and REBIRTH? Because French people are always striving for democracy, the kings are beheaded and so on. That is pretty much the European way of doing stuffs, like “You do not like the rulers, kill them.” People were tired of rulers because of crisis and they hated their kings, for example the French people were in hunger during Marie Antoinette’s time, Marie did not care. Romanticism is more powerful in colors, figures, emotions and strengths in contrast to rationality. Actually, Neoclassic and Romanticism are happening at the same time. Goya is one, who painted lots of deaths and it related with Romanticism. He will see how napoleon kill people in Madrid, about death, there are no science, no technologies, only death. If we want to show something violent, something powerful, something wicked, darkness, think about Romanticism. Goya will focus on the people suffering the war and the civilians. It makes him a painter, who expresses a very modern way of proposing things. Creating artworks that are powerful, shocking responses on the things happening currently. Goya will paint what we call as Black Paintings and these are horrific paintings. He is representing the inability of French Revolution to transform the world. Goya represents the killing of the people with etchings and that he use knife and metal. Etching is one technic, which Goya used it for painting. Realism is represent things the way they are and what is happening in reality. We do not see naked guys fighting each other with weapons, or naked women again. So, what we see in Realism is people working in the fields, representing everyday daily routine. There were no more mythological or religious topics. It is Realism.
At Baroque and Rococo era, there were five heroes of the Enlightenment. They were Isaac Newton, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Marques De Pombal and Erasmus Darwin. That was a beginning on England at 17th century, where was the age of new knowledge invented.
Isaac Newton was an inventor of modern science, found the gravity and an optic. He had made lots of works, what including optics, discoveries and so on. He believed that knowledge was not only about believes what written on the Bible, but it was also about observing what happen in our surroundings. He found the gravity while he slept and shocked because of the falling an apple on his head. Beside of found the gravity, he also wrote his discoveries in Latin. He was a lecturer in the Cambridge University and also the member of the first scientific association. He thought that the nature has the rules and it was not enough to be written on the book. He also drew a painting, what explained about the gravity theory. Indeed, he found the spectrum of colors by using a very simple stuff, what was a children’s toy at his house.
Voltaire was an Enlightenment writer, historian and also philosopher. Actually he was a French, but he moved to England because he found more freedom there than in France. He was a brave man, who believed in the freedom of speech, which including freedom of religion, expression and separation of church and state. He wrote lots pamphlets, books and so on. He planned a new world order and talked about the radical ideas. He also was an outspoken advocate and had placed him in under the strict laws.
Denis Diderot was an engine of Enlightenment. He wrote a book about knowledge was not from heaven excavation since he was in prison. Hence, he could not discover the world. He was proud of his father, because his father could produce everything with hands. He planned to write the encyclopedia in the jail. Indeed, after three months, the king released him from the jail because the king realized that his project could be profitable one for the kingdom. He became famous with his works of encyclopedia. His book was very expensive and only the elite members could afford it. That encyclopedia almost would burn by the church leader that time because it was forbidden to read by Catholic.
Marques De Pombal was a statesman in Portugal. Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal in 1775 was struck by the great earthquake. That time, Lisbon was one of the most religious city. The tsunami and earthquake had caused tens of thousands people died. They started to wonder why they still punished by God while they obey and pray to God. Hence, they did not believe to the church and God anymore. Marques started to bring and introduce the Enlightenment to people. He wanted to rebuild the city and made the water become accessible for the people. He used the access from the king to get the wealth from church for the sake of the people. He had built the city for 13 years by 45 thousand men. He used the Newton Theory for helping people and rebuilding the city. Later, Marques died because of executed by the church because church’s leader started to oppose him as they lost his power and write for influencing people to hate Marques.
Erasmus Darwin was a grandparent of Charles Darwin. He was born at Derbyshire and it is a city in England where the industrial revolution began. Darwin drew his finding of weaving machine, new kind of toilet and so on in his book. He believed that Enlightenment was all about process and also the world has constantly changed. Darwin traveled to the rural places, but he found that was not actually place of big industry, where he could find minerals and others inside the cave.
From four heroes of the Enlightenment, they said that science had displaced God from the life on the earth. They were famous scientist and wrote some books, which explained more detail and specific about theories of gravity, encyclopedia, machines and so on.
Rococo is late baroque era and very elaborate style, which has many details and accessories. It was a decorative art, which actually has no use for the building construction and also made from porcelain, ceramic and so on. Rococo usually appeared mostly in Austria, Southern Germany and also used for decorating church. Rococo is a reaction to the action of political action at that time. Beside of decorative art, it was also triggers the revolution in the beginning of 19th century. Some picture drew in Rococo era have the symbol and code behind it. Not all people can understand the meaning behind of the pictures, only people, who are highly educated could understand well.
Full name of Caravaggio is Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio. He was a famous painter in Rome at Baroque Era and also the one who represent himself as a monster or the goliath or a villain in his paintings. He was someone who made paintings with realistic observation of the human state which are both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting and also put a oscuro into chiaroscuro (shadow). He drew lots of sinner not the saints and these are “Boy with a Basket of Fruit”, “The Musicians”, “Judith Beheading Holofernes”, “The Calling of Saint Matthew”, “The Entombment Christ”, “Conversion of Saint Paul” and so on. Caravaggio was the one who searched forgiveness and redemption furiously.
Caravaggio was born in Milan, Italy and he was an orphanage. He appreciated by painter, Simone Peterzano because of his talent in painting skill. He moved to Rome and drew an artwork what included “Boy with a Basket of Fruit”. He drew that painting with portrait himself.
He was the one who often punished in crime and jailed to prison. He had short-tempered and threatened the waiter and also had killed someone who was Rannucio Tomassoni by dueling with sword. Because of that duel, he was not satisfied with Rannucio who was harmed women. Aftermath of that duel, he flee for Malta and cannot accused by polices. However, late by August 1902 he was arrested and imprisoned.
That time, he was regretful and would to be forgiven by God. He drew and represented himself as the goliath who had lost with David by duel. That painting called “David with Head of Goliath” and it represented that Caravaggio died. Actually, Caravaggio still alive at that time and that painting was just visualization. Finally, he took a boat northwards to receive pardons and forgiveness. Then, he died of poisoning.
In the Northern Renaissance, there were many artworks which including prayer book known as Les Tres Riches Heures, The Annunciation, Merode Altarpiece, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin, Isenheim Altarpiece, The Ambassadors, The Harvesters, Allegory, Potrait of Amilcaren, Minerva and Asdrubaale Anguissola, The Last Supper, Entombment of Christ, Fall of Man and so on. There was a famous artist in the Northern Renaissance, Albert Durer (I had explained about his artworks and biography last week). Yet, I am going to explain again about more detail of his life.
Les Tres Riches Heures was made by Three Brothers of Limbourgs and as the beginning of the 15th Century for the duke of Berry, brother to the king of France. That painting contains a calendar. Their manuscript marks a high point in medieval tradition dating back hundreds of years. That is time which increasing number of Northern artists were turning to painting on panel with the oil paint.
After death of Raphael in 1520, there were next generations who were Titian and Michelangelo, still going strong. The one that has interested art historians most is known as Mannerism. That is comes from the Italian maniera, meaning “style” or “stylishness”, and it was originally used to suggest that these painters who use practice of grace and sophistication.
The Apocalypse is famous woodcut by Albert Durer of scenes from the Book of Revelation on 1498. It is explained about theological advice, particulary from the father of Durer’s friend Wilibald Pirckheimer. Albert Durer made it when it was first trip to Italy and he published simultaneously in Latin and German. The most famous print in the series is The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Nowadays, researchers found some interesting story, which is known plagiarism. Albert Durer was a victim of plagiarism, for example woodcut by Marcantonio Raimondi the inventor of plagiarism. Albert Durer was not too happy and claimed him. Albert Durer had fact and strong evidence what was his signature. That is why Albert Durer often put his signature on all of his artworks.
He designed lots artworks what are The Last Supper, The Mona Lisa, Codex Forster, ornithopter (a man with flapping wings) and so on. He was born in Italy and a famous artist in the High Renaissance. He grew up in around Vinci, Italy to learn new something natural and he was poorly educated. Leonardo Da Vinci became obsessive with water’s movement and bird because a bird is the one greatest obsession in his life what is about aerodynamic. June 24th is the celebration day of the Renaissance time in Florence, Italy.
Adrian Nicholas tried to jump and fly by seeing Leonardo’s drawings. They had tested the parachute with traditional materials, which was certainly available at Leonardo’s time not with Newton theories. The parachute was designed for 500 years ago and it was different from the regular parachute because it did not have a hole above it. They had tested it and worked well, because the materials allow the wind to go through the fabric.
When Leonardo was little, he studied with Andre Verochio. He had helped him to fixed and painted an angel on painting with traditional method by using egg temperer; yolk, white wine and vinegar. Indeed, Andre Verochio adored his artworks on an angel and believed he had an amazing talent in paint.
Leonardo obsessed with nudity of male and he probably homosexual. In 1467, Leonardo caught and accused for sodomy and it is crime. In that time, crime of sodomy is burnt them. So, Leonardo endured of anxiety and it should be a dark moment for him.
When Leonardo was 30 years old, he moved from Florence to Milan and came to Shawdar’s castle. Shawdar is a dictator leader who is Ludavico Sforza and he was snob and surrounded himself with artists, inventors and so on. Ludavico interested in Leonardo’s artworks about war machines.
Leonardo was one of the first to analyzed and discovered how our eyes see, but he was not paid enough. He also studied about human body and found how the hardening of arteries can cause death. He also had an ambition to create the huge statue of horse with bronze and asked with the duke.
Leonardo hates violence, but he designed war machines. His designed was used to create war machines in the World War 1 what was 400 years after Leonardo’s era. There is something wrong with Leonardo’s design, but it was said that was intended that he drew the wrong design therefore no one could steal his design.
He also had another ambition to draw a very sophisticated painting, but he had no ability to draw by using Fresco technic. Yet, he tried to find another way by drawing with different Fresco technic (drawing in a draw plaster). He made The Last Supper (1498), but he did not like the technic. So, he went to somewhere to find faces and shapes well which is alive. He had a rival
He made The Last Supper (1498), but he did not like the technic. So, he went to somewhere to find faces and shapes well which is alive. He had rival, Michelangelo. Leonardo used sfumato technic where you use the colors with the technic by adding blurriness and focus, for example: the further the picture and it will be blur and less clear.
Two days ago, I attended The Visual Culture class with Mr. Rodrigo. I got lots of interesting stories about The Northern Renaissance. It was the most stunning and interesting. Renaissance is rebirth. The Northern Renaissance was started on 14-16th century. In the 15th century, it was the beginning of the art in Italy. Some arts made by most expensive materials and take a very long time to make these arts. In some area of the southern is rich and it brings benefit for population there because it has gold and diamond. An artist from Germany, Albrecht Durer becomes to the first famous artist. He created the Northern Renaissance that changed into the art forever. All of arts was started the revolution in political, so they spread the revolution idea through the art.
Jan Van Eyck is known an artist with the most beautiful art, for example: Ghent Altarpiece, The Arnolfini Portrait, Madonna of Chancellor Rollin and so on. His artworks look alive and more detailed. He donated his art for the sake of the church.
The Well of Moses made by a sculptor, Claus Sluter. It looks a tall slender cross with hexagonal base which was surrounded by the six prophets who had foreseen the death of Christ on the cross, David, Jeremiah, Moses, Isaiah, Zachariah and Daniel. There are six weeping angels who standing between them. No one has been able to do these but he can do it. That is why he is so famous. His artworks look alive and individualize sense.
After a decade, these arts were used to illuminate, it used to open the window and show a new side of world. Some arts also created from several points in Bible. Some arts in the church were dominated with the visualization of God and some also reflect the humanity. The church has an important role in influencing the arts. In 16th century, most artists moved to another part of Europe to save the painting from the war. These arts were brought by Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French.
Gale is the painting has the most historical painting in Europe and also more complex pattern. It was considered from the sunlight in the room and the position of window which the light stop. Gale is more than the religious symbol. An artist, Ann Gale, who made the Gale Paintings love to draw with secret and detailed technical skills. He is now traveling to Cambridge, Massachusetts, US to see what material he used to create beautiful paintings.
Some people work in extracting the mineral of stones to the oil or ink to paint. These stones are from Pakistan. The result of the colors will be so beautiful. There is a new innovation and they start to make more beautiful paint by adding the layer of oil on the paintings. These stones are more expensive and hard to be made. Jonathan Yeo said that oil painting is the best painting technic, because it has a very complicated color. He adores the old painter at the past because no one could even create the same paintings. The portrait painting is a new idea of painting, it tells people how important the person on the picture is. Today, the classic portrait becomes an industry and the document about people who live centuries ago. Portraits is not only about nature, but also being nature.
The Arnolfini Portrait is a famous portrait because researchers are still working and analyzing it. Researchers are debating and discussing what the portrait means and who are the couple in the portrait. No one knows exactly who they are and what is means. Someone said that maybe the man in the portrait has another wife, but she is not in the portrait, the mirror at the portrait also has meaning about what reflect the outside of the portrait and also the death and present life can be together in one frame, the candles on the portrait have also meaning about she is the most important part in his life, but one of the candles is off and it could mean he has lost one of the most beloved person. So, most artists always have hidden messages in artworks and have meanings beyond the artworks and it shows artist’s ideology.
Most people do not know what is Art Gothic. Well, I am going to explain what it means to. Gothic Art is art created in 12th to 16th Century AD. It was created first in Europe. That art was created in some elements, such as nature, elegant, traditional and so on. Abbot Suger was a father of Gothic art/architecture.
It has Key Features: -source from http://www.architecturecourses.org/early-english-gothic-period-
- Introduction of the flying buttress, pointed arch and ribbed vaulting
- Pointed arch openings and support, also knows as a lancet arches
- Lancet windows that were larger and wider
- Moldings carved with great depth
- Tooth ornamentation
- Large rose windows
- Emphasis on increased height
- Clusters of slender columns surrounding a central pillar (or pier)
Gothic art is including sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco and illuminated manuscript. The first gothic art was monumental sculpture on the Cathedrals and Abbeys. There were 10 top building of Gothic Art in some abbey church and cathedrals: -source http://www.architecturecourses.org/top-ten-gothic-buildings-
- Cathedral Basilica of St.Denis, France
- Palace of Westminster, United Kingdom
- Palais des Papes, France
- Milan Cathedral, Italy
- The Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque, Cyprus
- Strawberry Hill Castle (Villa), England
- Palacio de Comunicaciones, Spain
- Notre Dame Cathedral, France
- Burgos Cathedral, Spain
- Cologne Cathedral, Germany
In additional, there were some gothic arts in paintings, stained glass, frescos and manuscripts, for example:
There are lots of Gothic Arts, if you want to know more. You can look at links which I give you below.
NB: If you do not understand what it means to the flying buttress. You could look at http://www.architecturecourses.org/flying-buttress.