On late 18th and 19th century of 1790s until 1890s, that era was a revolution of France. Jacques-Louis David was French painter and painted lots of painting, which related with revolution of France. He had tumor; he also has the swollen cheek and could not talk but only mumbled most of the time. He painted Oath of Horatii, Napoleon at Saint-Bernard Pass, The Death of Marat and so on. The Death of Marat is a painting what was guarded and Marat was one who was a French revolute and died in bath. Yet, there was a woman, who wanted to kill Marat, she was Charlotte Corday. In The Death of Marat painting, there were two letters on the table was from Corday, who needed help from Marat. He created images that are propagandistic, for example if you look at the Death of Marat, what we see is that it is a humble person and we feel pity for him. But in reality, he was a ruthless killer. He was a killing terror machine that happened after the French revolution. Oath of Horatii, it is a boys’ bonding picture, a tight-packed display of muscle veins and steel. Formerly, The Palace of Louvre usedto be opened for free and showed many paintings of David.
David painted himself when he was in prison. He used the excuse that he was just a painter and released. That time, he painted a portrait, which was Napoleon at Saint-Bernard Pass painting, who became an Emperor of France. On December 1825, David died and his paintings were put on public display, except the Death of Marat, which was guarded. He was a painter, who used neoclassic style.
Another story about Revolution of France is Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI. At 1775, Louis XVI came to throne and was inherited the Versailles from his father, Louis XV. Marie Antoinette was a devotee and also Louis XVI’s wife. She built a toy farm at Versailles and went off milking cows in the royal dairy. Unfortunately, Marie was guillotined and died on October 16th 1793.
The aesthetic are divided into three groups, which are Neoclassic, Romanticism and Realism. The Neoclassic or New Classic is the Greeks and the Romans Cultures, but Renaissance is a rebirth to the classic cultures of the Greeks and the Romans. So, Neoclassic is a rebirth too like Renaissance and more rational. Why is it always REBIRTH and REBIRTH? Because French people are always striving for democracy, the kings are beheaded and so on. That is pretty much the European way of doing stuffs, like “You do not like the rulers, kill them.” People were tired of rulers because of crisis and they hated their kings, for example the French people were in hunger during Marie Antoinette’s time, Marie did not care. Romanticism is more powerful in colors, figures, emotions and strengths in contrast to rationality. Actually, Neoclassic and Romanticism are happening at the same time. Goya is one, who painted lots of deaths and it related with Romanticism. He will see how napoleon kill people in Madrid, about death, there are no science, no technologies, only death. If we want to show something violent, something powerful, something wicked, darkness, think about Romanticism. Goya will focus on the people suffering the war and the civilians. It makes him a painter, who expresses a very modern way of proposing things. Creating artworks that are powerful, shocking responses on the things happening currently. Goya will paint what we call as Black Paintings and these are horrific paintings. He is representing the inability of French Revolution to transform the world. Goya represents the killing of the people with etchings and that he use knife and metal. Etching is one technic, which Goya used it for painting. Realism is represent things the way they are and what is happening in reality. We do not see naked guys fighting each other with weapons, or naked women again. So, what we see in Realism is people working in the fields, representing everyday daily routine. There were no more mythological or religious topics. It is Realism.