Have you ever heard about Ai Weiwei? He is an artist from China who is rebel with the government. Ai Weiwei is one of artist in twenty-one century. He is too brave and criticizes with the government who are made Chinese people suffered. Ai Weiwei criticizes the government who use communist not democracy through his artworks. He struggled for fighting them by tweeting in twitter, taking pictures of him and also staffs or polices and advising people to give opinion through social media. “To the media, I have become a symbolic figure, critical of China. According to the government, I am a dangerous threat” -Ai WeiWei-. Ai Weiwei is unique artist because he made lots of contemporary art. His artworks are documentaries, stadium of Beijing for Olympic, sunflower seeds and so on.
He made lots of documentaries about the polices’ violence with people and citizens, government’s corruption, government’s careless with the victim of earthquake. Ai Weiwei had beaten by police and took a picture at lift. Another beating people, polices filmed him but his fellows also filmed polices who will beat him or something else. His attitude is too humanistic and softhearted to citizens and victims of corrupted by government.
He held up his exhibition at Tate Modern Turbine Hall about the sunflower seeds. He stated that sunflower seeds as hope. He collected sunflower seeds one hundred and fifty ton for his exhibition. Stadium of Beijing for Olympic, he made it like bird nest. He designed like that because he said, “I did it because I love it.”
Alongside he is missing; people around the world make campaign about the releasing Ai Weiwei nonstop. Tate Modern in London putted a large sign that written “release Ai Weiwei”, the United states and Europe union also protested, even museum San Diego and so on. He is a famous artist and activist in movement of China to democracy. Then, he backs and say hello to fans.
Last I saw him on Internet, he was in his own studio, Beijing and was doing the man of Alcatraz with Legos. He was making it for releasing his lawyer. He said “He did not intended to put him in trace.”
Last week, I learned about the Indonesian Art. That day, it was embarrassing because I am as Indonesian person who did not know well about the famous artists from Indonesia and also Indonesia Art. I only know a few about that art, which are including wayang (puppet) and batik. Indonesia art is more likely with the Rococo Era because on 1930, Indonesian was in romantic phases, which was influenced by Netherlands because Indonesia has not independent yet. Around the 1970s and 19680s, the art of Indonesia started for entering the modern era when Indonesia was a new independent country. There are some famous artists from Indonesia that I know a bit, who are, Eko Nugroho, FX Harsono, Fiona Tan, Dita Miranda, Raden Saleh and so on.
Eko Nugroho is from Yogyakarta and a young artist from Indonesia who are acknowledged by people. Besides of painting, he was a student who had participated with comic club “Daging Tumbuh” by publishing his artwork of comic. That time, he became to be famous in Yogyakarta, Bandung and also Jakarta. At 2002, His artworks was amused by wide-view’s people and also he was set up solo exhibition “Cerobong” at Cemetri Art House, Yogyakarta. His artworks valued as fresh and young colors for artist in Indonesia. Eko always be invited by somewhere country which are Europe, Australia and the U.S for showing his artworks which include the fifth Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art at Queensland Art Gallery, Australia (2006) and so on. On 2011-2012, he was in travelling to the world by participating with collective show “Tranfigurations” at Espace Culturel Louis Vuitton in Paris, had set up solo exhibition at Art Gallery of South Australia “The Eko Chamber”, “Temoin Hybride (Hybrid Witness) at Museum of Modern Art in Paris and “Threat With a Flavor” at Arndt Gallery in Berlin.
FX Harsono is from East Java and a contemporary artist and also a lecturer of faculty Art and Design at UPH, Tangerang. He had set up some his individual exhibitions, which are “Things Happen When We Remember at Art Space in Bandung, “What We Have Here Perceived As Truth/ We Shall Some Day Encounter As Beauty at Yogyakarta National Museum, “Writing In The Rain” in the U.S, “Testimonies” in Singapore and so on. He also got some awards, which are Prince Clause Fund Laureate Award 2014 and Anugerah Adhikarya Rupa Award from Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy 2014.
In conclusion, we should be proud ourselves because we as Indonesian have famous artists who have brought good reputation for Indonesia. We can do it if we have big expectation and desire. Never to stop trying and be remember “Success is you have failed many times.”
Have you realized about what is the design? Design has been there already since Ancient China, where the emperor orders for arrows to be designed. Beside of Ancient China, the design appeared in Germany around the 1920-1945, Neue Sachilchkeit (New Objectivity). That design had influenced deeply for their military’s experiences to worldviews. There are elements for the New Objectivity, which are a clear-eyed, direct and honest image.
George Grosz was an artist of the New Objectivity era around 1893-1958. He associated with the Dada in Berlin, Germany and he observed the onset of World War I with fascination would be turned to anger and frustration. His artworks are The Eclipse of the Sun, what was not described as the Great War itself but as a commentary on the gullibility of the public and also a business-friendly pass.
Adolf Hitler aspired to become an artist himself with the degenerate art. He had produced lots of drawings and paintings, what were reflecting his belief the zenith of Aryan art development. He opened Entartete Kunst in Munich on July 19th 1937 and included more than 650 paintings, sculptures and so on. That shows was immensely popular and attracted the people approximately 20,000 viewers.
In 1919, Walter Gropius became the director of the Weimar School of Arts and Crafts in Germany, it founded in 1906. Gropius assumed a new name to the school “Das Staatliche Bauhaus”, what is means to “State School of Building”. His goal was to train artist, architects and designers to accept and anticipate 20th century needs. He developed an extensive curriculum, which is called as Bauhaus Manifesto and it published in April 1919. It was the importance of strong basic design (including the composition, two and three dimensionality and color theory) and craftsmanship as fundamental to excellent art and architectures. He asserted that there was no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman.
The Bauhaus strives to coordinate all creative effort, to achieve, in a new architecture, the unification of all training in art and design. The ultimate, if distant, goal of the Bauhaus is the collective work of art in which no barriers exist between the structural and the decorative arts.
Bauhaus offered courses in wide range, which are including furniture design, weaving, pottery, bookbinding, metalwork, stained glass, mural painting, stage design and advertising and typography, in addition to painting, sculpture and architecture. Those courses were used to encourage the elimination of the boundaries that traditionally separated art from architecture and art from craft. Moreover, both a technical instructor and a “teacher of form” taught in each department. Gropius wanted the Bauhaus to produce graduates who could design progressive environments that satisfied and useful for 20th century needs. He hoped for a marriage between art and industry, it was called as a synthesis of design and production.
In sum up, Bauhaus of design’s purpose is to help the living of human everyday, even if we do not realize it. When we design a product, we need to think about the materials, the form and how to we connect with the product. So, all forms are following the functions. The challenge for design is “Sustainability” because it would be exist later. All of designer will always think about how the future is going to be, not just the present time. They are developing new ideas and new inventions, or renewing what existed already. We tend to buy new mobile phones because of the new design because the fresh new things naturally attract us.
Have you ever heard about photography? Photography divided into two words from Greek, “photos” means to light and “graphos” means to writing. Photography appeared around 19th century in Paris and it was a modern technological device was made shortly. Actually, the camera obscure was familiar to 18th century artists and it was a camera lucida (lighted room) replaced the enclosed chamber of the camera obscure. Today, the photographer aimed a little prism lens, hung on a stand, downward at an object and also projected images into a paper sheet. It can be the news, evidence, identification, beauty, art and also memory. The nation of memory is when you can remember the past that captured in the photo. Unfortunately, photography did not appear during renaissance while they already knew about the chemicals, lenses and camera. They could produce it, but they did not because they cannot afford it to get the portrait of themselves. Because of that, they need to pay people to draw them and it costs a lot. Stereographs is one part of photography and it is one of amusing and entertaining entertainment such as three-dimensional to experience the world by using some kind of device, one for your left eye and another for your right eye like using the binocular and it will become such a three-dimensional. If you use photography, we can gain knowledge like we see the detail and slow down something to watch them closely. Every picture has the perspective, even when you take picture. The picture also used to report the war happened at that time and we can share to the world.
Last Monday, I attended the visual culture class. I learnt about the contemporary art and also the Pablo Picasso’s biography. Then, I am going to tell shortly about Pablo Picasso. I bet there is no one knows that who is Pablo Picasso.
Pablo Picasso grew up in Spain and lived-died in Paris. He moved to Paris when he was young and thought that he should be part of the giddy liberty in Paris. He often gets visit and also uninvited quests to his studio and takes one of his works. He lives at a fancy apartment and classy gallery. Once day, he found a girl and interested to paint her into a painting and she became his lover. In the 1932, he drew her into a very sensual painting, what called as a very self-obsessed picture. He also drew many nude women and male in his painting as the form of modernism. His technique was the cubism sense and many things he draw differently what he actually sees. Picasso against the fascism through his brush and used it to criticize the government because politic do not interested at him at all, but he kept for drawing. He said modern art should be free form place and moment history. Goya, who was a romanticism artist and had inspired him. That was why he went back to his country when Spain was in a great poverty. He called it as the Black Spain and he drew a very cruel and creepy painting, which represents bulls and horses are the beasts, but there is a girl holding a candle with the candle. In that painting, the light represents as the hope and escape from the death. Then, he returned to Paris and found another crisis. There was a suburb, which politically anti-Franco (Spain’s leader) where suddenly six bombs dropped and the city torn apart. That was making Picasso drew the city (Guernica) into a painting as the night massacre, thought it actually happened in the afternoon. He had lots problems in relationship with mistress and wives and he started to draw his personal life problem into a painting. He used the light, which represents as the hope and optimism in the painting. Yet, he drew an evil light and also a good light (art), which means that arts can be a power to against the evil. So, Pablo Picasso is the revolution artist for 20th century, who was making the cubism, theatre, wardrobe and so on.
I learnt about the modernism, Dadaism, post-modernism, surrealism and fauvism. The word modernism comes from Latin and etymologically it comes from modern and isme. Hence, modernism is an ultimate form unity and truth of all, which has process in industrial and social. The style in modernism is formality. Within modernism, we have different style of arts, which are cubism, visionism, abstractism and so on. Picasso is one of famous painter, who use cubism technique, but in old era, artists used realistic style. So, there is nobody before he paint with the different point of aspect and perception. Fauvism is the style, where you use the color from the very different reality, for example you paint the blue face. Surrealism is the style impressionism of the landscape, not too detail but it uses abstraction. Dadaism happens in early 20th century and also in modernism, where modernism claimed as the eternal truth, later Dadaism comes to criticize it. It was a response against the belief in technology. Marcel Duchamp is the important artist in Dadaism and he put that thing into the museum. Lastly, he said that is art, not because people think it is art, but because he said so. In Dadaism, many unimportant things claimed as the art. So, Dadaism emphasizes that the process of making art is more important than how it look like. Postmodernism emphasizes that art is the celebration and life is enjoyable because it has no boundaries to tradition and beliefs, thus it should be celebrated. It created a new meaning not a new thing.
Pop art is famous art around of 19th century, which made by the silk-screening method. It appeared when it was in an excellent growth of economic in the United States around 19th century which it was in a world war II. Pop art was often used for advertising images to attract people to be a consumptive and also was often fun and happy. The techniques and approach of pop art were used more often found in advertising agency and it also often used the striking and iridescent colors, which are pink, red, yellow and so on. There were people who made pop arts, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, Claes Oldenburg and so on. The Gold Marilyn Monroe painting was one of the pop arts, which made by Andy Warhol.
Andy Warhol had been obsessive with Hollywood since he was a young boy. Hence, that is why it was painted soon after the death of Marilyn Monroe at 1962. He used unique and traditional method, which it called as silk-screening. Silk-screening is a work art by using silk and stencil pencil. Andy Warhol made it as a tribute painting to Marilyn Monroe because he wanted to monumentalize her role and efforts as a film star and also it was more referred to a religious painting. Marilyn Monroe was considered as an icon of sex and the film star.
A few of Gold Marilyn Monroe’s descriptions are the iridescent gold background, the pink skin of her, the yellow hair of her and the blue makeup of her. He used iridescent gold color because the golden background referred to as a symbol of lavish life that was led by Marilyn Monroe and it was related to Niagara Movie in 1953 where she was a the main character. In religious, he represented the golden background as the background of byzantine Madonna and Child, what has golden background too. The bright yellow golden color in her hair was used to represent her blonde hair. This symbolizes a generous woman that ever guy want to be with. The blue makeup of her was represented as her beauty. “A bright cobalt or blue eyeshadow will make your gorgeous brown eyes sparkle.” – Marilyn Monroe Spas – The pink skin of her was represented as the one of colors skin of seasons, for example skin in spring is peachy, skin in summer is pinky, skin in autumn is orangey and skin in winter is white or pale skin.
In conclusion, the Gold Marilyn Monroe painting is the one of pop art, which is a famous painting. It shows at MoMA (Museum of Modern Art). It has lots of descriptions and meaning of colors. Andy Warhol monumentalized the Gold Marilyn Monroe painting as a tribute painting because he had been obsessive with Hollywood since he was a young boy. Thus, Marilyn Monroe considered as lots of icon, which are the icon of beauty, the icon of sex and obviously the icon of film star. Actually, painters usually express their mind and feelings by painting and drawing with hidden messages and meanings.